Contractions is a term used to explain when two words or more have been shortened into one word. This is done by using an apostrophe which replaces the letter or letters which are no longer needed. It is common in spoken English and often seen in an informal way in written text or books. It is not recommended for professional uses such as in a resume or applying for work. Here is a quick example;
i did not i didn’t (contraction)


LONG FORM                 SHORT FORM
I am                                  I’m
I have                               I’ve
I will / I shall                      I’ll
I would                              I’d
You are                             You’re
You have                          You’ve
You will                             You’ll
He is                                 He’s
He will                              He’ll

I’m taking surf lessons on a beach in Bali. I’m surfing the internet.
I’ve saved enough money to take a holiday in Spain.
I’ll probably take the metro to work as my car is at the repair shop.
I’d be surprised if she marries him.
You’re the best teacher in my school.
You’ve a healthy rosy complexion.
You’ll pass these exams if you study with enough passion.
He’s a great chef.
He’ll make a good stable husband.

LONG FORM                SHORT FORM
She is                             She’s
She will                           She’ll
It is                                  It’s
It will                                It’ll
We are                            We’re
We will                            We’ll
They are                         They’re
They have                      They’ve
They will                         They’ll

She’s the brightest girl in school.
She’ll probably study medicine one day.
It’s a very large cheese cake.
We’re happy to see you again.
We’ll arrive at the birthday party at six o’clock.
They’re walking to school in the snow.
They’ve many years experience in fashion design.
They’ll call us next week.

LONG FORM                  SHORT FORM
How is                              How’s
Who is                              Who’s
Who would                       Who’d
Who will                           Who’ll
Here is                              Here’s
There is                            There’s
That is                              That’s

How’s life my friend?
Who’s going to the concert tonight?
Who’d like extra potatoes?
Who’ll help me with the garden today?
Here’s the receipt you asked for.
There’s a wonderful smell when i enter the chocolate shop.
That’s the way i like my breakfast, toast and marmalade and coffee.

LONG FORM                 SHORT FORM
There will                        There’ll
That will                          That’ll
What will                         What’ll
What is                           What’s
When is                          When’s
Where is                         Where’s

There’ll be many antique cars at the exhibition next week.
That’ll never pass quality control. The furniture is poorly constructed.
What’ll you do at the weekend?
Excuse me. What’s the quickest route to the hospital?
When’s the next world cup?
Where’s those new trousers i brought last week?

Negative Contractions

Are not                            Aren’t 
Cannot                            Can’t 
Could not                        Couldn’t
Could have                     Could’ve
Did not                            Didn’t
Does not                         Doesn’t   
Do not                             Don’t
Has not                           Hasn’t
Have not                         Haven’t

Aren’t you a friend of my cousin?
Why can’t i have a new bike for Christmas?
I couldn’t get to the shops on time.
We could’ve walked to the park. It is only a mile.
She didn’t ask her father for extra money after all.
He doesn’t understand mathematics very well.
You don’t have to go to the dentist today. Next month is fine.
It hasn’t been a good day for a walk because of heavy rain.
We haven’t had a holiday in nearly three years.

Had not                      Hadn’t
Shall not                     Shan’t
Should not                 Shouldn’t
Might not                   Mightn’t
Must not                    Mustn’t
Will not                      Won’t
Would not                 Wouldn’t
Were not                   Weren’t
Is not                         Isn’t 


They hadn’t paid the rent and the landlord wanted the money.
We shan’t be moved, the protesters said.
He shouldn’t date the girl from next door.
I mightn’t be able to meet you tonight.
We mustn’t fail the exams.
They won’t buy the green apples because the red ones are fresher.
I wouldn’t trust that person.
If it weren’t for my dog i would be lonely.
It isn’t right to cheat people and steal from them.

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