16. How to

How to

17. How to 

Negative sentences often confuse readers, making it harder to grasp the message.
Avoid “no” “not” words

No more than > at most

 

I’m not crazy about the movie but for its aesthetic elements > I only like the movie’s aesthetic elements.
I will not go to the market unless I have to > I will only go to the market if necessary.

18. How to 

Claim repetition

Writing that repeats the same basic claim without expressing a new reinforcing point of view. For instance, overuse of synonyms to express a point.

Example: “Her stance on issue “z” has zero moral. It offends standards of right verses wrong, of decency versus indecency. It stands in the face of that which is good and righteous and noble.”

None of these synonyms add anything of substance to the text. The reader doesn’t even understand why the stance has no moral and in what specific ways. Thus, the paragraph is redundant.

How to avoid: ask yourself, how many times have I made this point already? Can I reduce the details but keep the essence of the point I wish to make?

19. How to 

Inefficient words

THE

Remove “the” when you talk about a general group. The Muslim Women wear hijab. The cats are great pets.
REALLY / A LOT / OFTEN

Saying something is really tall means you’re too lazy to write exactly how much
How tall is it? Quantify it.

BELIEVE AND THINK

People are more interested in the facts than they are in vague thoughts. Even if you’re writing an opinion piece, readers should understand that based on the context.

JUST

Uses of “just” to imply something small or inefficient don’t add anything to the sentence. In most cases, you can remove the word “just” without affecting the sentence’s meaning. I just barely arrive in time. Just like when we met first.
THAT and THEN

To smooth your text, remove the words “that” and “then” whenever the sentences makes sense without them. Don’t start sentences “then” as it sounds clunky.

LITERALLY and VIRTUALLY

Both words are often superfluous.

20. How to 

Redundant adjectives

In a moment of hopeful optimism, she made the call. Adding two positive adjectives is inefficient, and you should remove one.

 

Several words that serve the same purpose.

The reason for this is because nobody cares. Stay open-eyed for redundant words and tighten the manuscript as much as possible.

 

Avoiding redundant details

Sometimes a text has an over abundance of description. Ask yourself, will this amount of details engage the reader or bore them.
Can I reduce some details but keep the essence of the meaning intact. Can I merge some details into one.

 

Avoiding redundant examples

How to avoid: ask yourself, is it necessary to use two examples to emphasise a point?

Can I reduce one example but still keep the meaning. Can I merge both examples into one.

21. How to 

Unite sentences with the same subject

If a short sentence starts with “he, she, it”, and the sentence before it is short too, unite them. But only if the sentence isn’t too complex.

Example: The wild boar galloped towards the prey. It hasn’t eaten for a whole day.
better: The wild boar, who hasn’t eaten for a whole day, galloped towards the prey.

22. How to 

23. How to 

REDUNDANCY and REPETITION

Avoiding redundancy in phrases and words

An action description
She nodded her head in agreement. Those last 4 words can be deleted.

They heard the sound of the train whistle. The sound of can be deleted.

 

24. How to 

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